In all the ages, knee has been the commonest part to be injured or affected due to other medical conditions. The knee joint’s main function is to bend, straighten and bear weight of the body along with hips and ankles in standing, walking, squatting, stepping up and down and sitting in various positions. Thus, any mild to severe disability issues occurring in the knee will have its effect on all these movement patterns in some or the other way.
The knee is made up of bony structures, ligaments in the front, back and both the sides of the joints, cartilages, knee cap(patella), meniscus(a structure within the joint), bursa (fluid filled sacs under the muscle) and muscle tendons. Injuries or medical deteriorations in these structures will cause pain and other symptoms in the knee. Pain can be localized to a specific area or be more diffuse throughout the knee.
Acute injuries- It is the result of accidents such as twist, fall, excessive force or direct blow from a solid object in which inflammation has occurred immediately. In many sport activities, such acute injuries are very common. These can be fractures, ligament injuries such as strains, sprains or tear (for eg. ACL, PCL tear), meniscus tear (partial or complete) or dislocation of knee cap. This causes pain and swelling due to inflammation which is localized to a particular site in the knee according to the underlying structures involved. Along with pain and swelling there is decreased or no range of motion, difficulty in weight bearing and inability in doing any other activities which involves knee motions.
Medical conditions- Infections and conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, gout, bursitis, septic arthritis have chronic effects on the knee giving pain, stiffness, muscular defects and difficulty in activities of daily living. Degenerative condition of osteoarthritis is the most commonly occurring issue giving impairments related to the knee joint which can cause mild to severe pain which is of chronic type aggravating in walking, climbing stairs, squatting, crossed leg sitting, it may also lead to abnormal postural changes, structural deformities and muscular imbalance.
Overuse injuries- Usage of knee joint and surrounding structures in an abnormal manner for a longer period of time can cause injuries such as Patellar tendinitis, patellar pain syndrome, iliotibial band syndrome, osteoarthritis, bursitis etc. These gives inflammatory changes, tightness in the musculature, stiffness in the joints, range restriction, knee buckling (locking of the knee) and discomfort with activities.
Treatment of knee pain is varied according to the condition that is causing it.
Heat therapy (short wave diathermy, hot packs, contrast bath), cryotherapy (cold packs, icing), electrical stimulation( TENS, IFT), Ultrasound therapy are used in relieving pain, inflammation, muscle spasms thus improving functioning in the knee joint and surrounding structures.
Exercises are important to bring back strength in the joint and the musculature for proper weight bearing and carrying out activities of daily living with ease.
Post-surgical exercise program is needed to achieve normal range of the motion in the joint, gaining muscle strength and reeducation of the joint function.
Quadriceps and hamstrings are the major muscles to be recruited in the cases of knee along with pelvic, core and calf muscles to recover overall normality in the individuals’ lifestyle.
Gait (walking) and balance training is also a progression to improve knee function.
Dr. Vigil V. Kavanal, is one of the best Physiotherapist in Mumbai. He uses advanced physiotherapy treatment to relieve from pain. With his treatment many patients got relief from pain such as Joint Pain, Knee Pain, Back Pain, Post Operation Treatment.
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